真人做人爱试看一

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          International disposal experience and control strategy for sludge

          Author: Taida machine       Release time:2016-08-19
          Reading guidance:Sewage and sludge treatment and disposal is to solve the problem of urban water pollution important and closely related in the two systems. Sludge treatment and disposal of sewage treatment is the guar
              Sewage and sludge treatment and disposal is to solve the problem of urban water pollution important and closely related in the two systems. Sludge treatment and disposal of sewage treatment is the guarantee for the ultimately be implemented, in economically developed countries, sludge treatment and disposal is an extremely important link, its investment accounted for about sewage treatment plant with a total investment of 50% - 70%. The sludge treatment and disposal methods are landfill, incineration and various forms of land use. Due to the specific situation of each country is different, methods have different emphases. In the United States, land use has accounted for the protagonist, at the end of the eighties of the 20th century landfill about 42%, 1998 land use ratio rose sharply to 59%, to 2005 land use proportion will rise to 66%; Japan due to the land area is small, so sludge treatment and disposal to burning, about 63%, land use accounted for 22%, landfill accounted for 5% and other about 42%; Luxembourg, Denmark and France, mainly in agricultural sludge mainly, Ireland, Finland and Portugal and other countries of agricultural utilization of sewage sludge ratio will be gradually increased, while France, Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands plans increase proportion of burned. In the United States, land use has accounted for the protagonist, the end of the 1980s landfill accounted for about 42% of the 1998 land use proportion rose sharply to 59%, to 2005, the proportion of land use will rise to 66%; because of Japan's land area is small, so the sludge treatment and disposal by incineration, accounting for about 63% of land use accounted for 22%, accounting for 5% of the landfill. Other accounts for about 42% of even a country in different regions of the methods of sludge treatment and disposal is also different, as in the Beijiao large industrial city, due to the high content of heavy metals in sludge and contains some toxic ingredients, so the burning of a large proportion, accounting for about 50%, while the other UK city in land utilization of sewage sludge. Through the above can be obtained by analyzing two inspirations: one is all very important link of sludge treatment and disposal as sewage treatment system, given the huge investment, so that pollution control can draw a complete Full stop. This is mature sewage treatment idea; second, different countries and regions according to local conditions to take the suited to their national conditions of sludge treatment and disposal technology route, considering the main factors for the industrial structure, land resources, degree of urbanization and other.
          After learning from foreign experience, how does our country make relevant control policy?
          1. Clarify responsible body of sludge disposal
             Sludge treatment disposal problems first in the confusion of the management system, and management system chaos first due to the absence of responsibility. Sludge treatment and disposal responsibility main body is not clear, is restricts the sludge disposal and management can be straightened out the key factors. Main responsibility is not clear for three main reasons: conventional sewage treatment plant is not a civil legal entity, but institutions is for government's compulsory service implementation affiliate, could not be independently bear the responsibility; second, sludge treatment and disposal without special economic support system, the general urban sewage charges is not sufficient to maintain operation, sludge treatment operating costs more unfunded, that responsibility is set aside; third is too much emphasis on "resources" of the technical route, lead to business and government to sludge treatment and disposal as a valuable resource rather than a liability. At present in most cities, local governments is the sludge processing disposal of responsibility main body.
              But with the field of sewage separation in place gradually, gradually implement sewage charges and technical route gradually clear, we should be clear in the policy for sludge treatment and disposal is directly bear the main sewage treatment enterprises, sewage treatment enterprises have generated the sludge treatment and disposal of the final standard of reasonable responsibility. Sewage treatment enterprises can select and disposal in different ways, can also be used to establish a contractual relationship way of authorization and other units, and the obligation to inform the principal unit of sludge treatment and disposal of the desired requirements, should also be a complete record of all retained sludge and its way out. If the improper disposal of sludge, sewage treatment enterprises will bear the primary responsibility. Of course, the premise is to sewage charges must include sludge treatment and disposal costs.
             2. Strengthen supervision of sludge
              Efficient government regulatory intermittent caused the difficulty of monitoring, compared with sewage treatment supervision of government on sludge treatment disposal regulation more difficult. Relevant government departments should attach great importance to sludge treatment the importance of disposal and the impact on the environment safety, strengthen the sludge treatment device management and monitoring, strengthening publicity to the community, to raise public awareness, the scientific supervision of sludge NA sequence of government supervision. Meanwhile, it should be open sludge treatment and disposal methods, the supervision of public opinion as an auxiliary means of government regulation.
             3. Lay down systematic and scientific sludge disposal standards
              Systematic and scientific sludge processing standard management is monitoring the sludge treatment and disposal, selecting the reasonable technical route and take an important prerequisite for effective technology policy. In sludge standard modification and formulation for attention in sludge standard modification and formulation for emphasis on sludge treatment to deal with the issue of security, in particular, to pay attention to the long-term effects on the ecological environment monitoring. Sludge landfill and incineration, can refer to the existing landfill and incineration standard; sludge reuse, should respectively, with reference to the corresponding industry of current standards and regulations, and combining with the urban sewage treatment plant sludge characteristics of current standards and regulations is lack of indicators; Sludge land use relates to agricultural pollutant control standards must be revised, and increase the safety problems of sewage sludge management regulations for sludge treatment and disposal, should pay special attention to the ecological environment monitoring. The long-term effects of sludge landfill and incineration, can refer to the existing waste landfill and incineration; sludge reuse, should the current standard according to the regulations and industry respectively, the lack of indicators and combined with the characteristics of city sewage treatment plant sludge of the existing standards and regulations; involved in land use of agricultural sludge pollutant control standards must be revised, and increase the management regulations of sewage sludge application, the application of location, application period, maximum amount of application and other content, and to develop relevant the provisions of sludge quality and soil quality monitoring.
            4. Perfect technical policy of sludge disposal
              Technical policy is the effective implementation of the technical route is an important guarantee for the effective implementation of the technical route. The technical policy of the sludge treatment and disposal in our country is still blank, which needs to be solved from the following aspects.
          A. Establish evaluation system to deal with the disposal of sludge. Immediately carry out the sludge production in our country, sludge, sludge treatment and disposal and reuse status investigation and evaluation work; to speed up the urban sewage treatment plant sludge treatment and disposal technology of preparation; pay close attention to the establishment of evaluation system and methods of sludge treatment and disposal technology.
          B. In view of the currently used for sludge treatment and disposal of the lack of funds. It is necessary to develop related to construction and operation of security measures to encourage, sludge treatment disposal and sewage treatment by equal attention. According to the local actual situation, formulate the reasonable sewage charging policy and system (including sludge disposal operating costs).
          C. Need support of financial tax policy. The state gives politic guidance to the resources engineering in the process of sludge treatment and disposal, through financial subsidies, tax incentives and other economic levers to guide enterprises to actively adopt the technology of energy recovery and material recycling.
          D. Establish the admission and encourage foreign investment, private capital actively participate in sludge treatment of investment and operation of disposal of the relevant policies, to capitalize on the trend to develop and explore suitable for the national conditions of our country sludge treatment and disposal technology, sludge disposal to promote market-oriented development. An important guarantee. Our country sludge treatment disposal technology policy still belongs to the blank.

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          真人做人爱试看一

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