真人做人爱试看一

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          Lesson from south Africa sludge management

          Author: Taida machine       Release time:2016-08-19
          Reading guidance:According to existing knowledge, there are three methods which can be utilized constantly: 1. Thermal value utilization of sludge, for example, take advantage of sludge digestion to produce new energy
             According to existing knowledge, there are three methods which can be utilized constantly: 1. Thermal value utilization of sludge, for example, take advantage of sludge digestion to produce new energy for providing thermal energy; 2. Proper application of organic nutrients, such as agricultural application; 3. Extract useful matters from sludge, such as phosphorus. Among these two disposal methods, utilizing nutrients is regarded as one of best method in south Africa. The choice of each kind of sludge management is based on management, technical and legal considerations. South Africa as a developing country, has formed advanced, comprehensive environmental laws and regulations and policy documents, however, in spite of the sludge was related to a series of policy can be accepted by government and industry and not applicable to all situations, needs to be confirmed whether these policy measures have long been recognized.
          1. Influence on health
            The New South Africa disposal guide draws on a large number of domestic and foreign research results, the sludge treatment processing standards, laws and regulations of the trend, the risk assessment data and practical demand. Risk assessment contains sludge characteristics, determine the most likely to suffer from the impact of the receptor determined sludge between the receptor and the influence way, by quantifying risk rating model of risk receptor, a guide to identifying can reduce risk factors.
          2. Influence to economy
             The South African sludge treatment and disposal standards that the sludge is valuable, from the economic interests of the consideration, to promote the reuse of sludge.
            A. Brick-making
           Materials of brick can be both furnace slag and dehydrated sludge. After research, brick-making enterprises make about 0.13 billion bricks every year. About 50000000 bricks among them can regard dehydrated sludge as raw materials.
            It is demonstrated by real examples that with effective implementation of south Africa’s sludge disposal methods, brick-making industries will be affected greatly. Relevant provisions can help brick-making industry save cost. If the range of application is widened, influence must be very great. Also, sludge application can also affect other relevant industries like cement production industry.
            B. Fertilizer production
            Sludge fertilizer and soil amendment agent is often the compost product or granular products. In the composting process, sludge under aerobic conditions stabilize. If fertilizer enterprises in accordance with the suggested steps for composting. The final product similar in humus, with stable and does not contain pathogens, and can be safely used in agricultural production.
            Sludge management practice is generally consistent with the relevant guidelines, the application of the sludge product will greatly affect the profit generation. If the application of the sludge fertilizer application to expand to the entire South Africa, its impact can be imagined.
            C. Save cost
            Cape Town is South Africa in urban environment using sludge model city. Cape Town has been approved by the consistent guide is disposed sludge management approach with South Africa's new sludge processing. Due to the sludge landfill itself is not advocated national, and with city scale is expanding constantly for sludge landfill land is limited, all of these make cape town actively looking for a new way for the utilization of sewage sludge. In Cape Town, if all the sludge for compost treatment, the annual cost saving 18 million rand ($1.6 million dollars).
            D. Agricultural utilization
            Using sludge in agricultural field is a kind of effective method to solve municipal sludge. South Africa for sludge treatment and disposal guide. The second part is advocate sludge in agricultural use of sludge as energy and not waste. This guide to encourage agriculture in the rational utilization of sludge, and guidance on how to make effective use of sludge. At the same time, sludge once in the cultivated land use and sludge characteristics (biodegradability, stability, and the types of contaminants) will affect crops and other crops.
             With proper application, farmers will take advantage of sludge positively in poor soil. The high concentration of organic compounds in the sludge can improve the poor condition of the soil.
           E. Social influence
             Sludge treatment and disposal measures whether health and other beneficial effects in addition to it? In South Africa and sludge management to and South African sludge treatment and disposal guidelines consistent. In addition to sludge management of social influence quantitatively is not easy. But it is clear, the effective use of sludge will also have some beneficial effects. Utilization of sewage sludge has an influence on the society focused on creating employment opportunities and reduce the sludge disposal process brings negative effect etc.
          F. Environmental influence
              In South Africa, due to poor management of sludge on the environment negative events are usually recorded. One of the objectives of this study is to determine the effect of sludge treatment and disposal in South Africa Guide on the environment. The sludge treatment and disposal guide section third contains a number of provisions to guarantee the sewage treatment plant for disposal of sludge. The correct guide also guide the reasonable selection of sludge treatment process, and provide help for operation and monitoring. The guidelines also encourage the rational use of sludge. The sludge treatment is considered to be the last process, the sludge maker must take certain measures, such as the selection of sludge, sludge or sludge management is to improve the quality. In addition, it is also necessary to choose suitable places for sludge monitoring of surface water, groundwater and soil monitoring. Therefore, sludge treatment is no longer easy to request Sludge treatment plant for all aspects of a wide range of monitoring.
             South Africa sludge management is a typical example of developing countries, is to encourage the rational use of the sludge, allowing the safety of the treatment of sludge under the guidance of the principle of policy, which has a great reference value for our country, it is worth learning.
           

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          真人做人爱试看一

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